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Understanding ectopic pregnancy: A guide to symptoms, causes, and treatment

Javeria Adenwalla

Javeria Adenwalla

Javeria is a writer, a yogi and an absolute lover of life. She reports live from the trenches of motherhood, stepping on metaphoric landmines, and sharing her experiences with unwavering optimism as she raises her three musketeers. Whenever life throws her off balance, she swivels back to zen mode with the power of yoga. When she’s not busy mastering the art of parenting,...
Created on Oct 30, 2023 · 6 mins read
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Pregnancy is a wondrous journey that brings a lot of happiness and excitement for people. However, it is not without its challenges, and sometimes these challenges can be devastating. One such challenge is an ectopic pregnancy.


Ectopic pregnancy is a medical condition in which a fertilised egg implants itself outside the uterus. This type of pregnancy is also known as a tubal pregnancy because it commonly occurs in the fallopian tubes.

An ectopic pregnancy can also occur in other parts of the body, such as the cervix, ovary, or abdominal cavity. Ectopic pregnancy can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

In this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatments of ectopic pregnancy, as well as its risk factors and prevention.

Causes of ectopic pregnancy


As mentioned, an ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilised egg implants itself outside the uterus. There are several reasons why this may happen, including:

  • Fallopian tube damage – Fallopian tube damage can occur due to a variety of reasons, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, previous surgeries, or adhesions from previous infections or surgeries. This can prevent the fertilised egg from travelling down the fallopian tube and into the uterus, leading to implantation outside the uterus.
  • Hormonal imbalances – Hormonal imbalances can also cause ectopic pregnancy. If the levels of certain hormones, such as progesterone, are not adequate, it can prevent the fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus.
  • Abnormal growths – Abnormal growths, such as fibroids or cysts, can also cause ectopic pregnancy by interfering with the normal movement of the fertilised egg.
  • In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) – People who undergo IVF treatment have a slightly higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than those who conceive naturally. This is because multiple embryos may be implanted during IVF, increasing the chances of one implanting outside the uterus.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy


Ectopic pregnancy symptoms can vary from person to person, but they are typically known to develop between the fourth and twelfth week of pregnancy. Some of the most common symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include:

  • Vaginal bleeding – This may be light or heavy, and it can be mistaken for a normal period or implantation bleeding.
  • Abdominal pain – This may be mild or severe and may be felt on one or both sides of the abdomen.
  • Shoulder pain – This is a rare symptom of ectopic pregnancy, but it can occur if the ectopic pregnancy ruptures and causes bleeding into the abdomen, which irritates the diaphragm and causes referred pain in the shoulder.
  • Pain during bowel movements or urination – This may be caused by the pressure of the ectopic pregnancy on the nearby organs.
  • Nausea or vomiting – These symptoms can be caused by hormonal changes associated with pregnancy, but they can also be a sign of ectopic pregnancy.
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness – This may be caused by low blood pressure due to internal bleeding.

It is possible for some people not to have any symptoms, especially early on. That’s why it’s crucial to keep up with your regular prenatal appointments with your healthcare provider. They can keep a close eye on your pregnancy and catch any potential problems early on. So make sure you’re attending your check-ups and staying on top of your health for you and your baby.

If you experience any of these symptoms, especially if you have a positive pregnancy test, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.


Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy


Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy can be challenging because its symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions, such as miscarriage or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To diagnose ectopic pregnancy, your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam and may order the following tests:

  • Pregnancy test – A urine or blood test can confirm whether you are pregnant.
  • Ultrasound – An ultrasound scan can detect whether the pregnancy is located in the uterus or elsewhere.
  • Laparoscopy – This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows the doctor to view the reproductive organs and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment of ectopic pregnancy


The treatment of ectopic pregnancy depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the pregnancy. The two most common treatment options are medication and surgery.

  • Medication – In some cases, medication may be prescribed to dissolve the ectopic pregnancy. The healthcare provider will administer medication that stops the growth of the pregnancy and allows the body to absorb it. This treatment is typically reserved for cases where the ectopic pregnancy is detected early and the person is in stable condition.
  • Surgery – Surgery is usually necessary in cases where the ectopic pregnancy is large, the person is experiencing severe symptoms, or the fallopian tube has ruptured. The most common surgery is a laparoscopy, which is a minimally invasive procedure where a small incision is made in the abdomen and a camera is inserted to remove the ectopic pregnancy. In some cases, a laparotomy may be required, which is a more invasive procedure where a larger incision is made in the abdomen.

After treatment, it is important to follow up with your doctor to monitor your recovery and ensure that there are no complications.

Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy


There are several risk factors that can increase the chances of ectopic pregnancy, including:

  1. Previous ectopic pregnancy – People who have had an ectopic pregnancy in the past are at a higher risk of experiencing it again.
  1. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – PID is a bacterial infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring of the fallopian tubes, increasing the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
  1. Endometriosis – Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside of it, which can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes.
  1. Fertility treatments – People who undergo fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), are at a higher risk of ectopic pregnancy.
  1. Smoking – Smoking can damage the lining of the fallopian tubes, making it more difficult for the fertilised egg to travel to the uterus.
  1. Age – People who are over the age of 35 are at a higher risk of ectopic pregnancy.
  1. Contraceptive devices – People who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) for birth control are at a slightly higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, although the overall risk is still very low.

Prevention of ectopic pregnancy


While it is not always possible to prevent ectopic pregnancy, there are several steps you can take to reduce your risk, including:

Practicing safe sex – Using condoms and other forms of birth control can reduce your risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PID, which can increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

Early detection and treatment of STIs – Getting tested for STIs and receiving early treatment can help prevent the development of PID.

Quitting smoking – Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of fallopian tube damage and increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.

Ectopic pregnancy is a serious medical condition that requires prompt medical attention. If you experience any symptoms of ectopic pregnancy, such as vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, or shoulder pain, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.


Related Articles

Signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy
Understanding miscarriage and baby loss
5 signs and symptoms of miscarriage

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